Male Infertility

Male infertility is on the rise, with testicular failure affecting about 1% of total male population and about 10% of those men are found to get evaluated for their fertility status. The belief that male infertility cannot be treated is a matter of the past; because in the present scenario, this problem can be successfully treated with various surgical procedures at Cyprus IVF Centre. With advancements in the technology and introduction of modernised techniques, the chances of infertility in men have significantly decreased. We at Cyprus IVF Centre understand that male infertility is a grave cause of both physical and emotional turmoil for the victims. Keeping this in mind, we take well defined steps to understand and design various ways and means to treat male infertility.

Too little or no sperm production is one of the major contributing factors of male infertility. Males who do not produce sperm are known to suffer from a condition termed as Azoospermia. Azoospermia are of 2 types: Obstructive and Non-obstructive. In former type, sperms are created by the man’s reproductive system, but due to physical obstruction it cannot be mixed with the fluid that is ejaculated.

In non-obstructive azoospermia no apparent physical obstruction is evident. However, there are some other factors that prevent the presence of sperm in the semen samples. In other words, there is some grave problem with spermatogenesis that leads to male infertility. Some of the factors known to play foul are the following:

  • Blockages in the tubules that do not allow sperm to travel from the testicles to penis.
  • Passages are underdeveloped which inhibits sperm transportation.
  • Too low sperm production due to which the semen sample has no sperm.
  • Vasectomy wherein the passages that carry sperm have been surgically blocked.

Several methods have been developed to treat male infertility. These include PESA, TESE and MESA which are used in conjunction with ICSI to make positive outcome a possibility in males with infertility issues. Candidates for such treatment methods are those men who either have low sperm count or no sperm at all in their semen.

PESA – Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration

The process of PESA consists of insertion of fine needle into the epididymis for fluid extraction. The epididymis is a narrow shaped, tightly coiled tube that connects the efferent ducts to vas deferens. The procedure of PESA is conducted either under general or local anaesthesia. However, at Cyprus IVF Centre, we believe that if the process is done using local anaesthesia along with sedation then the recovery will be faster with minimal side effects. The fluid that is extracted through needle aspiration is then analysed by the embryologists at Cyprus IVF Centre. Following this, the best sperm is selected for the process of ICSI.

TESE – Testicular Sperm Extraction

This is one of the most common methods employed and is the treatment of choice for those men who have had vasectomy done. It is also meant for those men in whom reversal vasectomy failed. At North Cyprus IVF Centre, the procedure is done under local anaesthesia; following which a fine needle is inserted into the testis and sample of testicular tissue extracted. The entire procedure takes about 15 minutes. The fertility specialists at Cyprus IVF Centre will carefully analyse the tissue under laboratory conditions to select the best sperm for the method of ICSI. In case, males complain of pain and discomfort after the procedure then they are given pain killer injections into the gluteus muscles to provide relief.

MESA – Micro-epididymal Sperm Aspiration

It is a treatment of choice for those men who have been diagnosed with blocked vas deferens. MESA is carried out under general anaesthesia after which sperm will directly be retrieved from the epididymis. Following this, Dr.Firdevs and Dr.Sevket will directly conduct ICSI in order to maximise the chances of fertilisation.

ICSI – Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

ICSI is one of the most commonly used treatments for male infertility. In this method, a single best sperm is directly injected into the egg for the process of fertilisation. Accomplished embryologists at Cyprus IVF Centre, select the best sperm using one of the following methods, namely PESA, TESE or MESA. Thereafter, the sperm injected egg is placed in a laboratory dish and kept in incubators with controlled temperature for the process of fertilisation to occur. The process of embryo transfer is carried out 2 – 3 days after the egg collection program.

Frequently Asked Questions

When a woman cannot carry her own pregnancy to term, some work with another woman who agrees to be a gestational surrogate. Specialists use IVF to make embryos with a woman’s eggs and her partner’s sperm. The surrogate is the one who goes through the pregnancy after IVF. But her DNA is not involved. The baby will be the biological child of both husband and wife.

Women who are over 40, have poor egg quality, or have not had success with previous cycles may consider an egg donor. This involves combining the man’s sperm with another woman’s donated eggs. If the procedure works, the woman becomes pregnant with a child who is biologically related to her partner but not herself.

Doctors will inject the sperm directly into the egg in a lab. This technique, called “ICSI” (intracytoplasmic sperm injection), helps when a man’s sperm count is very low or his sperm don’t move well. When the fertilized egg is ready, it goes into the woman’s uterus through the normal IVF process.

Fertile women can choose IUI using sperm from a donor. It may take several tries, but pregnancy rates are over 80%. You and your partner may want to see a counsellor first, to make sure you’re both ready to raise a child who is not biologically related to the father.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a popular procedure for many fertility problems. Doctors place the man’s sperm into the woman’s uterus, but not into the egg itself, while she ovulates. You may also need to take drugs to prompt your body to ovulate. IUI is less expensive and simpler than IVF (in vitro fertilization), but pregnancy rates are much lower.

These include:

  • Low sperm count
  • Poor sperm movement
  • Misshaped sperm
  • Blocked sperm ducts

A few lifestyle changes can make a difference. If you smoke, quit. Smoking lowers fertility for men and women and dims pregnancy rates. In one study, men who stopped smoking saw their sperm counts climb 800%. Also, check your diet. Is it as healthy as possible? Ask your doctor about supplements. Some vitamins and

It has shown promise for many conditions. Now, some couples are trying this popular form of traditional Chinese medicine to address infertility. Research suggests it may improve sperm quality and blood flow to the uterus, help smooth out irregular ovulation, and boost IVF success rates.

Knowing your menstrual cycle improves your chances of getting pregnant. The first phase starts with the first day of your period or blood flow. Your body releases hormones that makes the eggs inside your ovaries grow. Between day 2 and 14, those hormones also help thicken the lining of your uterus to get ready for a fertilized egg. This is called the follicular stage.

The average menstrual cycle is 28-32 days. Ovulation usually happens between day 11 and 21 of your cycle. A hormone called luteinizing hormone (LH) surges, triggering the release of the egg that's ripest. At the same time, your cervical mucus becomes more slippery to help sperm make their way to the egg.

Generally, the highest chance of pregnancy is when sex happens1-2 days before ovulation. If you have a regular 28-day cycle, count back 14 days from when you expect your next period to start. Plan on having sex every other day around that time -- say, days 12 and 14.  Keep in mind that having sex every day may lower a man's sperm count. Your cycle may be longer or shorter, so an online ovulation calculator may help you identify the likely day.

After your body releases an egg, the hormone progesterone kicks in to help build and maintain the lining of the uterus. Progesterone causes your body temperature to go up slightly. So taking your temperature with a basal thermometer every morning before getting out of bed can help you figure out if you ovulated. These thermometers are available at the drugstore and are inexpensive, but they aren't as accurate as other methods for tracking ovulation.

A surge in LH triggers your ovaries to release the egg. The surge usually happens 36 hours before the egg is released. Ovulation kits check LH levels in your urine to help you pinpoint the day of ovulation. These kits, which are available at drugstores, are convenient and highly accurate. You may want to test 1-2 days before you expect the surge so you can note the rise in LH.

During the second half of your menstrual cycle, the hormone progesterone kicks in to help prepare the lining of your uterus for a fertilized egg. If the egg isn't fertilized and doesn't implant, it disintegrates, progesterone levels fall, and about 12 to 16 days later, the egg -- along with blood and tissues from the lining of the uterus -- is shed from the body. That process is menstruation. It usually lasts 3 to 7 days. Then the cycle begins again.

There is growing evidence that links environment to fertility. If you want to boost your chances of getting pregnant, you may want to:

  • Eat foods rich in folic acids.
  • Buy more organic foods and green products.
  • Avoid certain plastics (including plastic wrap).
  • Maintain a healthy body weight through diet and exercise.
  • Avoid alcohol and caffeine.

A study found that women whose body mass index (BMI) was above normal took twice as long to get pregnant as those with a normal BMI. If you're overweight or obese, losing weight can boost your fertility and chances of getting pregnant. According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, a drop in weight of 5%-10% can dramatically improve ovulation and pregnancy rates. Obesity can also cause infertility and low testosterone in men. Being significantly underweight can also lead to infertility.

Fertility goes down with age, especially after the mid-30s. It also lowers the chances that fertility treatments will be successful. Experts say you should talk to your doctor if you're under 35 and have been trying to conceive for more than 12 months, or over 35 and have been trying for more than 6 months.

Studies show that sperm count and sperm movement decrease as men age, as does sexual function. But there isn't a cut-off age that makes a man too old to father a child. One study found that it took men age 45 or older longer to get a woman pregnant once the couple started trying. If your partner is older, you may want to talk to your doctor about ways to boost your chances.

  • Manage stress.
  • Avoid alcohol and tobacco.
  • Maintain a proper weight.
  • Eat a diet high in zinc (found in meat, whole grains, seafood, and eggs), selenium (meat, seafood, mushroom, cereals, and Brazil nuts), and vitamin E. 
  • Keep the testicles cool -- no long, hot baths, hot tubs, or saunas, which can reduce the number of sperm.